A GIS-Based Walkable Service Area Analysis from Smart Growth Perspective in the city of Edirne
Today it is generally agreed that one of the most important problems of many cities is uncontrolled urbanization. Different approaches have been tried to investigate how cities should be developed. Among these approaches, the Smart Growth movement initially emerged as a response to all of the negative externalities (environmental corruption, rising costs, poor infrastructure, and operational and maintenance issues) resulting from urban sprawl. The Smart Growth approach is based upon 10 main principles. Among these principles, “creating walkable environments” plays a crucial role in promoting society’s health, relating to both physical and mental conditions. Moreover, walkable areas stimulate revitalization of public spaces, open space, and local shops. From the perspective of Smart Growth, evidence has shown that there is excessive use of the automobile, which dramatically increased greenhouse gas emissions in many cities, including the city of Edirne in Turkey. However, the topography of the city is quite suitable for walking and cycling trips. The main purpose of this paper is to measure walkability in Edirne City and to identify areas with low walkability scores. In this way, the quality of pedestrian facilities, safety, and the comfort of walking can be increased. Different methodologies exist in the literature for walkability analysis. One of them, Walkable Service Area Analysis (WSAA), is a spatial network analysis based on a Geographic Information System (GIS). ArcGIS software from the Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) has been used to perform WSAA in this article. Through the GIS-based walkability analysis and using the calculated index, the walkability scores of neighborhoods were determined and the results have been classified into five categories (not walkable, low walkable, medium walkable, high walkable, and exceptionally walkable) in the city of Edirne.
Ahvenniemi, H., Huovila, A., Pinto-Seppä, I., ve Airaksinen, M. (2017). What are the differences between sustainable and smart cities?. Cities, 60, 234-245.
Beatley, T., (2000), Green Urbanism: Learning From European Cities, Island Press, USA.
BHA Planning Company, (2006), Netcad Land Use Database.
Downs, A. (2005), Smart growth: why we discuss it more than we do it, Journal of the American Planning Association, 71(4), 367-378.
Drummond, W., (2011), ‘’Mixed-Use Development in Theory and Practice: Learning from Atlanta’s Mixed Experiences’’, Applied Research Paper, 1-88.
Duncan, D.T.; Aldstadt, J.; Whalen, J.; Melly, S.J.; Gortmaker, S.L, (2011), Validation of Walk Score® for Estimating Neighborhood Walkability: An Analysis of Four US Metropolitan Areas. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 8, 4160-4179.
Erçoskun, Ö., (2012), Green and Ecological Technologies for Urban Planning: Creating Smart Cities, IGI Global, USA.
Farr,D., (2007), Sustainable Urbanism : Urban Design with Nature, John Wiley & Sons Inc., Canada.
Hall, T. (2006), Urban Geography: 3rd edition, Routledge Contemporary Human Geography Series, Londan and New York.
Holbrow, G., (2010), A Novel Methodology for Measuring Walkability Using Distance to Destinations Along a Network, Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning, UEP 232, Tufts University.
ICMA and EPA, (2006), This is Smarth Growth, 1-32, http://www.smartgrowthonlineaudio.org/pdf/TISG_2006_8-5x11.pdf, Date of access: January, 2017.
Khodeir, L. M., Elsisy, A., and Nagy, M. (2016). Pre-assessment of Metropolitan Areas’ Smart Growth through Agent Based Modelling. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 34, 245-257.
Kotharkar, R. ve Bahadure, S., (2015), ‘’Assessing Sustainability of Mixed Use Neighbourhoods through Residents Travel Behaviour and Perception: The Case of Nagpur’’, Sustainability, 7: 12164-12189.
Scheffler,L.R,(2003), Usıng Smart Growth Prıncıples For Development In St. Landry Parısh, Master of Landscape Architecture, Louisiana State University, 5-22.
Wey, W. M. ve Hsu, J. (2014). New urbanism and smart growth: Toward achieving a smart National Taipei University District. Habitat International, 42, 164-174.
Smart Growth Network (SGN) (2001) , What is Smart Growth?, p: 1-32, http://www.smartgrowth. org.
Ariffin, R. N. R., and Zahari, R. K. (2013). Perceptions of the urban walking environments. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 105, 589-597.
Forsyth, A. (2015). What is a walkable place? The walkability debate in urban design. Urban design international, 20(4), 274-292.
Copyright (c) 2018 Rumeysa Ceylan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).